Y al final, algo de sexto

Bueno, como no podía ser de otra manera y para concluir llegamos a sexto.
Este año navegaremos por la historia de la música descubriendo como hemos cambiado y como la música nos ha venido acompañando con los años.
Aquí os dejo algún que otro video que es más que ilustrativo.

Erase una voz... la música --> Recorrido de la música vocal con un toque de humor.

 Historia de la música (lecciones ilustradas)
Recorrido rápido y breve en un solo dibujo.

Barroco y Clasicismo

The Origin of Music, the Ancient and Middle Ages
Since remote, historical times, man has made music to express his feelings and to communicate with the force of nature.
The Ancient World
Since man’s first musical expression, music has developed greatly thanks to the many different civilizations that existed in the past. We know, for example, that the Ancient Egyptians sang and played instruments in their ceremonies. In Ancient Greece, the philosopher and mathematician Pythagoras discovered that music and mathematics are closely linked when he realized that the sounds on a musical scale are related arithmetically and he discovered the concept of harmony. The Romans also developed musical instruments for their large army of soldiers.
The Middle Ages
Profane Music à In the Middle Ages, while religious music was becoming more important in the monasteries and churches, a new kind of music was developing in villages and castles. This new music was not religious and people entertained themselves singing and dancing while minstrels and troubadours became very popular.
       The minstrels were not educated people, they sang but they didn’t know how to compose, so they interpreted the songs that other people did. They travelled from village to village offering their repertoire and they were often accompanied by jesters and jugglers to make their representations more fun.
       The troubadours were educated musicians from noble families that composed their own music. The 13th century Spanish king Alfonso X and the 12th century English king Richard the Lionheart were famous troubadours.

Religious Music à People started writing music in a very basic form in the Middle Ages. In the monasteries the monks interpreted this music together and they all sang the same melody. This kind of music is known as Gregorian Chant which is a form of monophonic liturgical music named after Pope Gregory the Great. As the techniques for writing music improved, the monks organized their music on lines and created signs to represent the height of the sounds they had to sing. This way, the first stave was created by a monk. It was Guido d’Arezzo who gave each musical note a name


The Renaissance

This artistic period spanned from 15th to 16th century. It began in Italy and its name for this period (Renaissance) is a French word which means "rebirth". This period was called the "rebirth" because many new types of art and music were reborn during this time. New social groups developed as merchants who became an upper middle class.
During this period, there are new musical developments as Polyphony (varias voces que suenan o cantan a la vez). In Renaissance kings, the noble class and anybody with enough money often had their own music group in their castles and homes. Families became rivals to see who had the best group of musicians or artists.

Some very beautiful music was written for use in church services (sacred music) by the Italian composer Giovanni da Palestrina. In Palestrina's music, many singers sing together (this is called a choir). Religious music was accompanied commonly by organ or sackbut.
There was also plenty of music not written for the church, such as Madrigal (vocal music composition popular among the young people. Popular instruments during the Renaissance included the “viola da gamba” (a string instrument played with a bow), lutes (a plucked stringed instrument that is a little like a guitar), and the virginal, a small, quiet keyboard instrument. Also some other interesting instruments appeared as vihuela, “sacabuche”, “chirimía”, “salterio”, “serpentón”…
Some important Spanish musicians were Juan del Encina and Tomás Luis de Victoria.

 The Baroque
This period started in Italy in the 17th century (1600) because of the apparition of the first Opera and spread through most of Europe until 1750. During this time, the European population lost confidence in many aspects of life, the fear of death made people more religious and the clergy gained respect and importance.
Baroque music originated in Italy where we heard the first operas. The Italian composer Claudio Monteverdi wrote the first great operas (L’Orfeo 1607). The first operas, written for the nobles and influential members of society were often based on mythological gods and heroes. Little by little, the general public became interested in this kind of music. As time passed, a new kind of opera called Opera Buffa or Comic opera became popular.

Music had to transmit sadness, anger, happiness, adapting to the scene and as a result, new musical techniques developed rapidly. The first orchestras appeared and the string instruments nowadays known as the bowed string family.

At the same time, polyphony continued to be the most important musical form in religious music. However, the clergy also decided to make changes creating the cantata and the oratory which consisted of vocal and instrumental parts to interpret religious texts. Some of the most important masterpieces are the “Passions” that were composed for Holy Week and written by the most outstanding Baroque composers: Georg Friedrich Haendel and Johann Sebastian Bach.
Toccata and fugue (J.S.Bach)

bach cello suite no. 1 prelude

Aleluya (Haendel)